The mean survival of ambulatory patients is longer (on the order of 18 months) compared with those presenting with paraplegia (approximately 4 months) (Smith et al. 1993). Those patients who have not received androgen deprivation prior to the onset of cord compression survive for longer when compared with those who are already on hormone treatment at the time of presentation with cord compression (Huddart et al. 1997, Tazi et al. 2003).
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Hamdy FC, Williams JL. Use of dexamethasone for ureteric obstruction
in advanced prostate cancer: percutaneous nephrostomies can be
avoided. Br J Urol 1995;75:782-785. Huddart RA, Rajan B, Law M. Spinal cord compression in prostate
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Smith EM, Hampel N, Ruff RL, et al. Spinal cord compression secondary to prostate carcinoma: treatment and prognosis. J Urol 1993;149: 330-333.
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Soper JT, Blaszczyk TM, Oke E, et al. Percutaneous nephrostomy in gynecologic oncology patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158:1126-1131.
Sorensen PS, Helweg-Larsen S, Mouridsen H, Hansen HH. Effects of high-dose dexamethasone in carcinomatous metastatic spinal cord compression treated with radiotherapy: a randomised trial. Eur J Cancer 1994;30A.1:22-27.
Tazi H, Manunta A, Rodriguez A, et al. Spinal cord compression in metastatic prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2003;44:527-532.
Common Emergency Urological Procedures
John Reynard and Nigel Cowan
Indications for urethral catheterisation include relief of urinary retention; prevention of urinary retention—a period of postoperative catheterisation is common employed after many operations where limited mobility makes normal voiding difficult; monitoring of urine output, e.g., postoperatively; prevention of damage to the bladder during caesarean section; bladder drainage following surgery to the bladder, prostate, or urethra, e.g., transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), open bladder stone removal, radical prostatectomy; and bladder drainage following injuries to the bladder.